How many shirts should you own?
I am pretty sure the number is 24.
It took me considerable time and effort to come up with that clever calculation. And it makes sense for me. Is it right to prescribe rules for others in terms of how they should organize their workplace clothing? Especially when the math is clever?
In an April 2018 article at Quartz at Work, Leah Fessler describes the new dress code at General Motors. It was cut down from 10 pages to two words: “dress appropriately.” Mary Barra, the CEO at GM, had to work directly against GM’s bureaucratic corporate culture – including her own human resources department – to bring this simplified code into place. One senior leader emailed her to object to the new rule. That manager received a phone call from the CEO, after which they worked things out. (The rule remains in place) Barra found that first-level managers needed to learn how to develop their own in-house opinions of what constituted “appropriate,” and they each asserted some localized interpretations. She thinks this practice helps develop first-level managers.
When I apply my own judgment as a human resources analyst, I sometimes think I have the capacity to create comprehensive rules-based systems that are best for everyone. My first concern is, how many dress shirts should I own? Based on the best advice, I have chosen to hang my shirts one inch apart, so they don’t wrinkle in the crush. I have space in my closet for 24 shirts. I can go four weeks before I have to do laundry, giving me lots of flexibility.
I replace shirts when they are three years old. Over three years there are almost 160 weeks. If I wear each shirt once every four weeks, I will wear each shirt 40 times. At this pace my shirts wear-out at the same pace that they go out of style. There are subtle shifts in patterns, colour, and cut, such that after three years a garment looks dated. Those 40 wears cause them to get threadbare at the cuffs and shiny at the collar.
If I’m granted the authority to assert rules about clothing, I have a high likelihood of advancing my own strengths in clever mathematical calculations. For example, if you replace shirts once every three years, and there are 24 shirts, this means that you are replacing eight shirts per year, or two shirts per season. I make a ritual out of it, noticing the passing of the seasons and the fact that it’s okay to buy two shirts when I pass through a favorite store or find a deal. It’s a ward against impulse buying because I know if I’m allowed to buy shirts right now. And at any point in time, one-third of my shirts have been purchased in the past year.
It’s a great calculation and I recommend it to everyone. If I’m ever given the authority to do so, I might just impose this calculation on others. After all, I have put a lot more thought into this than others, and the math makes a lot of sense. Do you work at an organization where one person did a bunch of calculations and obliged everyone else to follow rules that comply with the formula? It’s pretty common, when you think about it.
In an April 2017 article in Harvard Business Review, Bill Taylor compares the outcomes of businesses that have rules-based systems against those that are largely discretionary. On United Flight 3411, when a doctor of Asian ethnicity was bloodied by security to clear space for an overbooking, the viral video and its after-effects erased $1.4 billion from the company’s stock value. Taylor cites an in-depth analysis (which is behind a paywall) that found that “The problem wasn’t with United’s employees, but with a ‘rules-based culture’ in which 85,000 people are ‘reluctant to make choices’…”
By contrast, I am not reluctant to make choices. I have been granted significant freedom to advance workforce analytics in the manner I think is best. And if you gave me a shot at it, I could save employees an awful lot of money.
If I spend $80 per shirt, with 40 wears this adds up to $2.00 per wear in purchase cost. Ironing it yourself can save money, but I spend about $2.50 to have it ironed for me. The combined purchase and ironing cost adds up to $4.50 per wear. My wardrobe is carefully designed such that my cost-per-wear for office attire is $10 per day. If you haven’t done cost-per-wear calculations, you may want to give it a try. You may be surprised. A $400 leather jacket might be worn 400 times, which is $1.00 per wear. That’s a bargain. Good leather-soled shoes have a similar calculation. By contrast I only wear suits twice per year, and men shouldn’t keep a suit beyond ten years. In one decade I’ll never get more than 20 wears out of all suits combined. It costs me well over $25 to walk out the door wearing a suit, which is an unjustifiable luxury for me. Hence I am not tempted to buy suits. By contrast, if I wear a sports coat every day I get a large number of wears, bringing down that garment’s cost. And I can wear each dress shirt twice, halving the cost-per-wear of my dress shirts. Walking out the door in a nice crisp shirt is an obsession for me, so getting this right every morning really sets me up with a good start.
I particularly like the shirts that I bought at the department store Nordstrom. Nordstrom has a single rule for customer service, which states “Use best judgment in all situations. There will be no additional rules.” Nordstrom has the highest sales per square foot in the retail industry. In Bill Taylor’s article he cites research by business theorist Mark White who finds that organizations that grant employees more discretion, out-perform rules-based organizations in “service, empathy, and capacity to do the right things in difficult situations.”
It may be that judgment is a skill that is best learned with practice, and rules inhibit the ability to practice this skill.
We must choose between culture and efficiency, but strangely, pushing the power to the local level is a boon for both the bottom line as well as culture and workplace wellbeing.
You have two options if you want to be just like me. You can make your own calculations and your own decisions about what works best for your own wardrobe. Or you can feel the addictive influences of power and slowly impose your personal judgment calls upon others. The irony is that the boundary between these two ways of living is not clearly marked. You will only discover it by experience, through mistakes, and some kind of internal personal discovery.
Can you recognize that moment when you figured out what’s best, and then made a separate judgment call on whether to impose your views? Can you remember a time when you did not make the distinction? What did you learn about yourself? Because that’s what employers are really struggling with these days.